Table of Contents

Document History and Version ControlPrint / PDF

Version Number

Date Produced

Approved by

Description

1

Jan 2005

A Bedggood

Version 1 Released

2

May 2007

A Bedggood

Version 2 Released

3

July 2013

A Bedggood

Version 3 Released

4

June 2014

A Bedggood

Version 4 Released

5

Dec 2015

N Sutton

Changes to previous Version:

  1. Table of contents added.
  2. Section 2 NVT Management Committee added.
  3. Table added in Soil Testing & wording removed.
  4. Slight changes to wording of Other record keeping section
  5. Retitled & Timing of Seed Distribution to Timing of Seeding Operations & added a preamble.
  6. Seeding Windows & Seeding Rates sections added.
  7. Table 2 added for Seeding Rates.
  8. Calculating Seeding rate graphic added.
  9. Slight change to wording of Delivery Standard Determination.
  10. Winter Nurseries Section Deleted
  11. NVT Relevant ACAS Protocols removed pending review & updating.

5.01

Dec 2015

N Sutton

  1. Incorporated document history & version control section to track amendments.
  2. Revised Proposed Data Entry and Milestone Dates (Standardised nationally for 2015 project) as Appendix 5 to better reflect milestone table in the RFT document

5.1

Dec 2015

N Sutton

  1. Amended Delivery Standards Table to reflect GIWA Screenings & Colour standards for WA barley.
  2. Renumbered Proposed Data Entry and Milestone Dates (Standardised nationally for 2015 project) as Appendix 1
  3. Inserted Sowing windows for NVT trials from NVT Protocols V4.0 as Error! Not a valid result for table.

5.2

Feb 2016

N Sutton

  1. Changes to Section 5
    1. Added GRDC to paragraph 1
    2. Reworded paragraph 4
    3. Paragraph 7, added “disease” to compromising agents”
    4. Added a new paragraph after 10, Insect Control
    5. Inserted “or at risk of flooding (flood plain)”
  2. Changes to 5.2 – Soil Tests paragraph 1
    1. Changed wording and emphasis of “should be” to “are to be”
    2. Changed “Exc” to Exchangeable cations in Soil Tests Table
    3. Changed Total N to Available N (NO3 + NH4)
    4. Included Disease and nematode history to paragraph 4
  3. Changes to Section 5.3 PredictaB Sampling
    1. Replaced whole section.
  4. Changes to Section 5.4 Other Record Keeping
    1. Changed wording of rainfall monthly records requirements
  5. Changes to Section 8.1.4 Canola
    1. Modification to second paragraph on Canola trial types
  6. Changes to Section 8.4.3 Seeding Windows
    1. Corrected wording & link to Appendix 2 Sowing Windows
  7. Changes to Section 8.4.5 Calculating Seeding rate
    1. Amended the formula to read correctly.
    2. Added wording “This then needs to be multiplied by the sown plot area (not harvested plot).”
  8. Changes to Section 12 Sowing
    1. Paragraph 7, added sentence “The date of subsequent rainfall, sufficient to commence germination, must be recorded.”
    2. Paragraph 12 modified to include reference to Nitrogenous fertiliser
  9. Changes to Section 16 Site Inspections
    1. Added GRDC at paragraph 4
  10. Changes to Section 17 Field Days
    1. Added uppercase emphasis to read Trial Service Provider MUST “NOT” accept sponsorship, or money, or any product from a sponsor
  11. Changed to Section 18 Harvesting
    1. Added wording “and to minimise grain damage such as cracking and splitting” to paragraph 6
  12. Changes to Section 19 Delivery Standard Determination
    1. Reworded the section to reference Grain Trade Australia, Australian Oilseeds Federation & Pulse Australia where applicable.
    2. Added links to Grain Trade Australia website.
    3. Added a note in respect of requirements for Glucosinolate Testing.
  13. Changes to Section 23 Relevant ACAS Protocols
    1. All Sections deleted.
  14. Updated Appendix 3 PredictaB sampling Protocols

 

 

1        Background

The objective of the NVT system is to provide growers and their advisers with independent information on the performance of newly released varieties of the winter field crops, relative to the current commercial varieties grown in their area. The intention is to have two years of data available at the time each new variety is made available for commercial production, now including canola varieties.

This will require that NVT include advanced breeding lines in the trial system for the two years before they are likely to be commercially released (three years for pulses). In this context, commercial release means the season when there is a significant quantity of commercial seed available for purchase by growers, OR, the season that the variety is contracted to growers in a closed loop marketing arrangement.

Trial Service Providers must do their utmost to ensure that the data for each new variety properly represents its likely performance for growers, and that means that comparisons must be valid, with each breeding line having the opportunity to perform to its genetic potential.

These protocols are designed to ensure that, as far as is possible, all breeding lines can perform to their genetic potential, and that their performance is not compromised or affected by any factor except the environment for that trial site, for that growing season.

The protocols are expressed as outcomes to be achieved, not as a detailed set of operating instructions on how to achieve those outcomes. This means there is a good deal of flexibility allowed to Trial Service Providers on how they achieve these outcomes. However, as emphasised in section 21 of this document, Trial Service Providers are expected to document and adopt their own detailed operating instructions and/or quality management procedures to ensure that the required outcomes are achieved.

2        NVT Management Committee

It is a requirement for all Service Providers to participate in the NVT Management Committee. The NVT Management Committee comprises:

  • GRDC manager of the NVT project
  • NVT Manager
  • A delegate from each of the NVT Service Providers

However, a number of delegates bring the “data manager” along to the meetings as well, especially in the host state. This is encouraged so as to share experiences and guide further enhancements to the NVT database.

The NVT Management Committee meet once each year, the state-based venue being determined/ratified by the Committee on a rotating basis – Vic, SA, NSW, Qld, WA. The meeting is chaired by the NVT Manager.

  • The cost of the secretariat (venue arrangements and costs, Committee dinner) is met by ACAS.
  • The travel and accommodation costs are to be met be each Service Provider.
  • ACAS and GRDC participants meet their own travel and accommodation costs.

The meetings have been of one day’s duration, usually not a full day towards the end of the project term. To add value to the travel costs, ACAS has organised a “professional development” activity fitting around the meeting time (by consensus reached with the Service Providers prior to the meeting). Examples have been Peanut Breeding program and industry tour, CSIRO robotic plot scoring and a manual field scoring app development, AgriBio at La Trobe University.

3        NVT Database

Training will be provided by the NVT Manager to Trial Service Providers on the use of the NVT database, and how to access it for the downloading of trial designs, inputting of data etc.

Access to the NVT Database is provided to Trial Service Providers ONLY for the purpose of managing NVT trials and is NOT to be used for any other purpose. Training in the use of the database will be coordinated by the NVT Manager. User guides for growers and advisors, breeders and trial managers are available on the web site at www.nvtonline.com.au.

4        Farmer Agreement

Where the trial site is on land belonging to a farmer or other third party, a written agreement to these protocols must be prepared and signed by both the farmer and the Trial Service Provider to ensure clarity of arrangements for the trial site for any one year. Details of cleaning up the site after harvest and arrangements for managing harvested grain must also be documented.

In reciprocation, the farmer must receive

  • a copy of the plot layout after sowing to allow site visits at any time;
  • the soil test results for the site once available; and
  • results from the trial, for released varieties only, as per the NVT database grower access Trial Report

5        Site Selection and Characterisation

5.1       General Site Selection

Sites must be accessible for trial operators, breeders, field day personnel and attendees, and others who need to look at the trials. Visibility for local farmers is encouraged, however not at the expense of uniformity and relevance. Consequently, sites should be as near as practical to access roads. NVT and GRDC signs are to be placed on the roadside adjacent to the NVT site or at the access gate and will enhance the exposure of the NVT program.

The soil type of the selected site must be representative of the major soil type in the district.

Access to the site for management operations throughout the year must be considered. In addition, consideration of the farmer’s equipment and management of the crop and headlands is important, e.g. the trial should be at least one boom width from the fence line and should be an appropriate distance from headlands, roadways, sheep troughs, gates and trees, etc., to avoid undue variability.

The first preference for NVT sites is to choose those sites that minimise the impact of soil compaction. Selection of a controlled traffic site is one example of a way to reduce this risk. The paddock must be in the same phase of the local best practice rotation, as the crop(s) to be trialled. For example, it is not appropriate to establish a wheat trial if the rest of the paddock is to be sown by the farmer to canola, or a pulse. However wheat, durum, oats and triticale trials could be established in the same paddock in which the farmer was sowing one of those crops.

Where a wheat trial is placed beside a barley trial, the paddock should be of moderate fertility level to meet barley requirements and nitrogen fertilizer applied to manage up to the required level for that of the wheat. In this situation, the fertiliser regime should be aimed to produce barley within malting protein specifications of less than 12%.

Any possible complications from the past use, or the proposed use during the trial season, of residual soil active herbicides must also be assessed and managed to avoid undue variability.

In-crop weed and pest control must likewise be managed to avoid undue variability. The farmer may need to spray with a herbicide or pesticide to control weeds or pests in a crop. This in turn may damage one or more of the crops being established in the trials. This is particularly so with the different herbicide tolerant variety trials at the one site. Adequate headland distances must be used to avoid farmer spray-drift onto the NVT trials.

One requirement of a good trial site is that it is not compromised by weed, disease or pest competition. Good judgement is required by the trial manager so that weeds and pests do not influence the performance of varieties. This may require a higher level of weed and pest management than that level considered acceptable to the landholder for the surrounding crop.

Establishing a trial site within a paddock where the farmer has established good weed and pest control is a sensible approach. If herbicide or pesticide resistance in weeds or pests is known, or thought likely to occur on a farm or in a paddock being considered for a trial, the initial option is to choose another paddock or another farm. Alternatively, a management plan must be developed and implemented. The management plan must detail practical measure to ensure that the herbicide resistance weed or pesticide resistant pest does not compromise the yield performance of the lines in the trial.

Pulses are particularly vulnerable to hares and rabbits, while kangaroos and emus can also be a problem in some areas. Trial Service Providers must avoid sites where such pests have adversely affected crops in the past, or where damage is likely. Ensuring that the trial is in a crop of the same type and sown close to the sowing time of the crop helps reduce pest damage. Electric fences have been shown to be a good option as a deterrent for hares.

Insect control must be considered in pulse and oilseed management. For example canola frequently requires an insecticide application to control red legged earth mite or lucerne flea at seeding or seedling stage, and Heliothis (or Helicoverpa) control may be required at flowering in pulse crops.

Other animal hazards to NVT trials that need timely management controls in some cropping regions are:

  • Early slug control is a critical management action that must be applied when the site is susceptible to attack ie before leaving the paddock at seeding
  • White snails in relevant areas need baiting early to reduce numbers and reduce issues later in the season
  • Sky larks graze canola cotyledons and so trials need to be sown at the same time as the surrounding crop, especially if the headland areas are not sown. A bird scarer may be required for a couple of weeks if the potential for damage exists.
  • Mice damage occurs in some years and NVT sites may need baiting where appropriate.

Trials have been lost due to all of the above, except for white snails that make a mess of the harvested grain.

The site must be visually and physically uniform in soil type. It must not be subject to excessive drainage from surrounding areas or at risk of flooding (flood plain) and be large enough to allow for machines to turn within any proposed fence line.

5.2       Soil Tests

The site must have a uniform soil depth and texture and representative soil samples from 60 centimetres (if possible) below the surface must be taken from each site by the Trial Service Provider and sent to an approved laboratory for analysis. Soil testing (including PreDicta B) should be carried out 4 to 6 weeks prior to seeding to allow returned results to fine tune site selection from high levels of root disease and professional nutrient management. Samples are to be split into 0 – 10 cm and 10 – 60 cm for testing. If conditions prevent a depth of 60 cm being achieved, the actual depth is to be recorded.


A soil test is required for each site. This may be a composite soil test for the whole site comprising several trials. Sampling procedures should be adequate to collect a representative sample from the whole site.

The results of testing at the laboratory will be entered directly into the NVT database by the Trial Service Provider as stipulated in their Service Agreement. Results will also be made available to the farmer in accordance with the Farmer Agreement.

The soil type must be described in terms that are meaningful for farmers in the district. In addition to soil characteristics of the site, the cropping rotation, herbicide application, fertiliser, disease and nematode history where known, must be obtained by the Trial Service Provider for the previous three seasons and entered into the database.

5.3       PreDicta B sampling

PreDicta B (B = broad-acre) is a DNA based soil testing service to identify which soil-borne pathogens pose a significant risk to broad-acre crops prior to seeding. In the NVT system, the aim of the PreDicta B sampling and testing is to allow trial managers to identify and avoid potentially problematic sites. The results will also provide some interpretive data for the genotype responses in NVT trials.

PreDicta B sampling and testing must occur at all NVT sites. As mentioned in the soil testing above, this should occur some 4 to 6 weeks prior to sowing. A detailed description of the sampling method required can be found in Appendix 3 PreDicta B sampling protocol.

PreDicta B results will be available to ACAS directly from the SARDI pathology labs. However, a list of SARDI sample bag reference numbers, along with EVERY trial associated with that reference number, is to be provided to ACAS by July 30 each year.

Example table format for “Predicta B sample number and Trials” table

Year

Sample Number

Date Sampled

Trial

2016

123456

April, 1 2016

CMCA16KANI3

2016

123456

April, 1 2016

CMIA16KANI3

2016

123456

April, 1 2016

CMRA16KANI3

2016

123456

April, 1 2016

CMTA16KANI3

5.4       Other record keeping

The coordinates of plot 1 of the trial site must be recorded by GPS and entered directly into the NVT database by the Trial Service Provider. A white peg is to be placed at the front of plot 1 to allow ease of locating the trial for field observations. If multiple trials occur at a site, an identifier for each NVT trail is required.

Monthly site rainfall records are preferred from a rain gauge on-site. If location data fails then monthly rainfall is to be obtained from the Bureau of Meteorology and entered to the NVT database by the trial service provider.

6        Site Preparation

Preparation of the trial site is to be undertaken in accordance with best management and best farmer practice for the district. Ideally the site will be prepared by the farmer who is simultaneously preparing the paddock for a crop. It is acknowledged that this is not always practical for small plot trials, or small plot machinery, and that the site may need some specific preparation for sowing. This should be the minimum necessary to get the site ready for sowing by the proposed plot seeder. Best farmer practice would preclude, for example, the burning of a trial area for ease of use of plot equipment when farmer practice is to retain stubble, unless the sowing equipment cannot handle the level of stubble present, or the stubble would interfere with crop establishment.

7        Trial Layout

The trial layout must take into account controlled traffic farming systems used by the farmer. This may require adjustment in plot length to ensure that each plot fits between the permanent tracks established by the farmer. The orientation of plots and the choice of numbers of rows and ranges may also need to be adjusted to fit the permanent tracks.

Harvester paths and other wheel tracks should be avoided where possible. If this isn’t possible then the paths/tracks should run perpendicular to the direction that the plots are sown. This also applies to all other farmer field operations that may occur within the paddock.

Inter-row seeding is very practical for growers but does NOT lead to good trials, due to inherent variability such as wheel tracks, variation in farmer equipment (e.g. seed depth and establishments), gaps between machinery passes (seeder, boom-spray), header chaff, etc.

8        Seed Acceptance to National Variety Trials (“Acceptance Criteria”)

8.1       Entry to the NVT

8.1.1      Wheat

The objective of the NVT is to have two years of evaluation prior to growers having access to seed of that variety. Thus, the second year of NVT evaluation is the year that certified seed growers are bulking sufficient seed for commercial release.

Thus the entries to the NVT system should be those lines from which the decision to commercialise one (or several) is to be made. This should keep the total entry numbers to a manageable level.

8.1.2      Barley

The objective of the NVT is to have two years of evaluation prior to growers having access to seed of that variety. Thus, for feed quality lines, the second year of NVT evaluation is the year that certified seed growers are bulking sufficient seed for commercial release. This means that the first year of NVT evaluation is the year that a decision is made to commercially produce seed of a line. For malting quality lines, the year that the first of the 100 tonne commercial scale malting grade evaluation is being conducted is the year that the lines can be entered into NVT trials. This is wavered if a variety is commercially available to growers as a “feed variety with malting potential”.

8.1.3      Oats

The objective of the NVT is to have two years of evaluation prior to growers having access to seed of that variety. Thus, the second year of NVT evaluation is the year that certified seed growers are bulking sufficient seed for commercial release. Thus the entries to the NVT system should be those lines from which the decision to commercialise one (or several) is to be made.

8.1.4      Canola

The objective of the NVT is to have two years of evaluation prior to growers having access to seed of that variety. Canola moves to commercial release quickly with a high multiplication rate for summer increases. Varieties also have a high turnover rate due to the breakdown of blackleg resistance. This high turnover means it’s imperative for growers or advisors to have ample data available on a varieties performance before it is released. NVT’s objective is to have two years of evaluation prior to growers having access to the seed of that variety. Thus, the second year of NVT evaluation is the year that breeding programs are bulking sufficient seed for a commercial release. Summer seed bulk-ups may further increase the seed available for growers to purchase for the upcoming season.

There will be 8 trial types; early and mid-conventional, early and mid TT, early and mid IMI tolerant and early and mid RR trials. However, not all trial types will occur at all sites.

All sites are identified as either a Early or Mid-maturity site and only those genotypes entered in to Early or Mid trials will occur at those sites. Not all sites will have all chemistry groups, but ALL sites will have a Triazine Tolerant trial.

8.1.5      Pulses

Pulse lines are inherently slow to progress to commercial release to growers because of the low bulk up rates and reduced bulk-up rates in summer generations. Lines that are identified for progression to seek a commercial agent for future distribution will be accepted into NVT. It is realised that these may be 3 or even 4 years away from growers gaining access to seed.

8.1.6      Lupin

Acceptance of lupin entries into NVT trial follows the same regulations as for other pulse crops. However, quarantine restrictions prevent interstate traffic of lupin seed. Lupin seed must only be obtained from an accredited source.

8.1.7      General

If it is perceived a breeder is not following these guidelines, evidence may be sought by the NVT Manager to support the inclusion of future entries. This evidence could be the results of the breeder’s own trials and evidence of pure seed multiplication.

8.2       Seed Quality.

The Seed Provider should aim to supply seed of a quality that enables those lines to perform to their full genetic potential. Seed produced from an autumn sown crop and from a better than average yielding site would be advantageous. Measurements of seed viability and seed size (1000 grain weights) must accompany the seed sent to the Trial Service Provider. If no supporting germination data is supplied, an assumed figure of 95% will be used.

The Seed Provider must provide weed free seed that is also disease free. Evidence of having passed suitable seed cleaning protocols and accompanying pathologists report on the health of the seed is required. This will lower potential liability to the Seed Provider for issues associated with the distribution of the seed.

When non-GM lines are supplied to the NVT the Seed Provider must take all reasonable precautions to guarantee the genetic purity of the provided seed in order to avoid any unintentional release of GM crops.

8.3       Genetically Modified (GM) Seed

Designated GM lines are admissible for testing in NVT subject to

  • The Acceptance Criteria being fulfilled; and
  • Governing State and Commonwealth law permitting at the time of nomination the commercial release of nominated lines to growers within 2 years from first entering NVT trials.

It is for the Seed Providers to obtain all necessary documentation and permits in compliance with governing State and Commonwealth law prior to nominating GM entries for NVT.

8.3.1      Adventitious Presence of GM Material (AP)

State moratoria have accepted harvested seed to contain not more than 0.9% of AP in harvested grain and for sowing seed to contain not more than 0.5% of AP.

All canola seed provided to Trial Service Providers will have been tested for AP to this detection level and documentation of the results of those tests is to be provided to the NVT Manager before sowing. Those entries without accompanying documentation will not be accepted into the NVT trials.

8.4       Timing of Seeding Operations

The NVT manager will oversee a consistent rationale to apply across all seeding operations at trials and trial sites in respect of the acceptance and adherence to timing of critical seeding elements. The program will guided by best-practice in each region where trials are conducted and this will be facilitated by engaging with Regional NVT Advisory Committees to recommend sowing times and seeding rates by Crop. These recommendations will be ratified and implementation by the NVT Management Committee for adoption to the trials being sown each year.

8.4.1      Submission of entries by breeders

Breeders must submit the names of entries into the NVT system by the nomination date specified in Table 1 This will allow the NVT management committee to compile regional seeding lists and to review the total number of entries in each seeding list.

Failure by breeders to submit names of entries by the nomination date will result in exclusion of those lines from the NVT program.

8.4.2      Delivery of seed by breeders

Seed of entries accepted into the NVT program must be delivered to the Trial Managers designated location for seed receival by the delivery date specified in Table 1. This will allow time for redistribution and packing for sowing by region groups.

The delivery date is also when the NVT manager will contact the Trial managers regarding seed receival and modify regional seeding lists if necessary. Failure by breeders to deliver seed to the Trial Managers by the delivery date will result in exclusion of those lines from the trial. Trial Managers are instructed to replace those lines with filler lines. The nomination date, delivery date and sowing date may vary across the cropping regions of Australia.

8.4.3      Seeding windows

Sowing dates, specified in , are to be interpreted as the last possible date on which seeding operations are to be completed by trial managers. All trials should be completed by these dates unless express written permission is given the NVT manager.

8.4.4      Seeding Rates

Table 2 details the respective seeding rates, in Plants/m2, by State, Region & Crop. These are provided for the guidance of trial managers. At the conclusion of seeding operations, the seeding rates must be entered into the NVT database. An example of how to calculate seeding rates in provided in section 8.4.5.

 

8.4.4.1     Table 1 SEED DISTRIBUTION DATES

8.4.4.2     Table 2: NVT Recommended Seeding Rates

This section under development

8.4.5      Calculating seeding rate

The following formula can be used to calculate sowing rates, taking into account:

  • target plant population
  • germination percentage
  • seed size or 1000 seed weight
  • establishment – usually 80%, unless sowing into adverse conditions

 

9        Seed supply for commercial varieties

Seed of the commercial varieties of wheat, barley and triticale is being bulked up each winter in two nurseries that form a backup to each other – one in WA and one in NSW. Having a site in WA also alleviates the concerns of WAQIS. Thus a common seed source is used for all commercial varieties within each trial.

The oat and pulse breeding programs generate the seed of the commercial varieties to be used in the NVT trials. This will most likely be from the same source as the unreleased lines.

Seed will be supplied in bulk to the Trial Service Provider to place in packets for sowing. It will be the responsibility of the Trial Service Provider to ensure the seed is placed into packets or magazines appropriate for their sowing system. The Trial Service Provider must have operating systems in place to ensure that seed is accurately identified throughout this process.

Breeding companies are required to provide information on seed size (1000 grain weight) and seed germination for each line. The Trial Service Providers will use this information to calculate the amount of each line of seed required to sow the same number of viable seeds in every plot of every breeding line and variety. This should equate to the recommended sowing rate for that crop for that soil type in that district.

Breeders will have strict deadlines for the supply of seed and for the quality (ie. cleanliness) of seed. If they do not meet these deadlines or standards their line(s) will not be included in trials.

All Trial Managers have agreed to use flutriafol+cypermethrin (Veteran C or Vibrant), Difenoconozole+Metalaxyl-M (Dividend or Vibrance) dressing for cereal trials. Triadimenol (Baytan or equivalent) must be avoided due its effect on coleoptile length (Martin et al). Some breeding programs have a policy only to distribute treated seed because of a potential bunt problem. Consequently, breeders can supply seed treated only with the approved abovementioned treatments. Liquid seed dressing is required to prevent powder exposure to the operators at seeding time. Alternatively, seed should be supplied untreated.

Lupin seed is to be treated with Thiram and Rovral® at the recommended label rates to protect against anthracnose and brown spot respectively. For a similar reason, seed of chickpea entries may be treated only with thiabendazone+thiram (P Pickle T).

Seed of all lines and varieties in each trial must be treated exactly the same. Treatments should only be applied at the manufacturer’s recommended label rate. All seed received that has been treated with a powder treatment should be returned to the sender for health and safety reasons. Concerns with seed of a particular line or lines should be discussed with the NVT Manager.

Canola is required to be sown without any seed dressings to ensure valid comparisons are possible between breeding lines and standard varieties. A protectant may be required for slugs and or bird damage. Breeding companies are required to send all NVT canola trial seed UNTREATED. Fungicide protection will be provided to the trial in the form of Flutriafol (IMPACT®) mixed with fertiliser and applied to the trial by the Trial Managers at sowing.

The NVT Manager will determine the list of commercial varieties for each trial. Seed for additional plots to make the trial design more practical will be provided by the Trial Service Provider, but must meet the same standards and be treated the same as the trial seed. For all crops except canola, the use of Filler is to be avoided. The NVT database should show the name of the substitute variety sown. For canola, any Filler varieties sown are to remain labelled as Filler on the NVT database. Buffer seed is to be of a commercial variety suitable for the area.

The Trial Service Provider MUST NOT add additional entries to any trial UNLESS these are required to make trial design more efficient or practical. All entries, breeding lines, and commercial varieties, are determined by the NVT Manager on an annual basis.

A small sample of each line of seed supplied by the breeder must be retained and securely labelled by the Trial Service Provider in case there is any dispute over the genetic identity of any plot.

Any seed remaining after the requirements for trials has been met must either be returned to the breeder if requested or destroyed by confounding into a common container and delivered for rubbish disposal. Seed is not to be sown or used as stock feed (possible chemical contamination). Each breeder will advise the NVT Manager of its preferred method of excess seed disposal. Trial Service Providers must comply with the preferred method of each breeder and keep records to confirm that they have employed the preferred method identified by each breeder.

10    Trial Designs

The NVT Manager will determine the list of entries for each trial after discussions with the breeders and the NVT Management Committee. Once the list of entries is determined and entered into the NVT database by the NVT Manager, the Trial Service Provider will determine the shape and layout of the trial and enter this information into the NVT database to obtain a trial design.

It is the Trial Service Provider’s responsibility to sort the seed packets into the right order so that the trial is sown to the design generated on the NVT database. Last minute adjustments may be necessary ONLY if seed is not obtained in time.

The above process must be completed before commencement of the optimum sowing period for the trial crop in the selected district. The trial design is also to be made available to the cooperating farmer in accordance with the Farmer Agreement.

11    Fencing

Fencing may be required to avoid damage by grazing animals, to ensure that herbicides or other pesticides which may be applied to the surrounding crop are not applied to the trial, or to avoid windrowing or other farming activity on the surrounding crop impinging on the trial site.

Where it is required, fencing must be of an adequate standard to achieve the exclusion required and it must be erected well in advance of crop emergence at the trial site.

12    Sowing

The trial must be sown according to the trial design provided by the NVT database. Buffers must be included at the start and end of a trial block. Packing plans are used to record alterations due to non-arrival of seed or mishaps in the field at sowing. Packing plans are to be retained by the Trial Managers for a minimum of 18 months after sowing

If pre-emergent herbicide is the district best management practice, it must be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions. If an herbicide requires soil incorporation, i.e. Trifluralin, then sufficient measures must be taken in accordance with the label. Trial Managers must NOT rely on plot seeder incorporation only as this will not disrupt enough soil to ensure maximum herbicide efficacy.

Trials must be sown within the sowing windows provided for each region in Appendix 1 of this document. This sowing time is the optimum sowing period for the trial crop in the selected district. This requires that the trial area be ready for sowing well before the optimum sowing period. The sowing date must be recorded and entered by the Trial Service Provider into the NVT database. If the trial is sown dry, the date of the rain event that will initiate germination is to be used.

Ideally, each trial should be sown within 3 or 4 days of the farmer sowing the paddock. However, late sowing of the paddock by the farmer is not a reason to delay trial sowing in optimal conditions. The risk of pest damage to an isolated trial needs to be considered.

Seed received from breeders after the delivery date specified in Table 1 must not be included in the trials. If breeders have failed to deliver seed by the delivery date, the Trial Service Provider must replace those lines with filler lines. Trial Service Providers must not delay sowing of the trial within the sowing period to wait for the late delivery of seed from breeders.

Trial Service Providers must closely monitor soil moisture conditions in the lead up to sowing and be prepared to sow as soon as optimal conditions prevail for sowing the trial crop in the soil type. In many parts of the Australian wheat belt, adequate soil moisture for sowing may only exist for a few days in each sowing season – the opportunity to sow must be recognised and acted upon.

Trials may be sown “dry” if the farmer/co-operator has sown dry or is about to sow dry the surrounding paddock (recommended). Late breaks to the season may also warrant more trials on suitable soils to be dry sown. The NVT manager is to be notified of all cases where dry sowing is planned. The date of subsequent rainfall, sufficient to commence germination, must be recorded.

Trials must not be sown outside the optimum sowing period for the trial crop taking into account the crop maturity group (for wheat and canola) for the soil type and district, without the prior written approval of the NVT Manager.

The Trial Service Provider must ensure that the seeding equipment is well maintained and adjusted and that staff involved with sowing are competent and well trained.

Good farming practice must be adopted for sowing. Depth of sowing must be consistent for all plots and appropriate for the soil type and moisture conditions. Seed must be adequately covered by soil. The distance between plots must be consistent to minimise edge effects. Trial Service Providers must ensure that staff engaged to sow trials are aware of the importance of this, and can manage their sowing equipment to achieve uniformity of distance between plots.

An appropriate fertiliser regime must be established before sowing. The regime must include application pre-sowing, at sowing, and/or post sowing and equate to “best practice rates”. Fertiliser applied at sowing must be applied in a way that will not damage the germinating seed.

Lupins and canola are susceptible to both nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) “burn” so sowing with high P and N fertiliser rates is risky and should be avoided. Where possible, these seeds should not be sown with high rates of these fertilisers using the same seeding boot (placement). Deep or side banding methods are preferred.

On completion of sowing a white peg is to be placed within a metre of the edge of plot 1 in each trial so that authorised visitors to the site, who are not accompanied by the Trial Service Provider, can ascertain the orientation of the trial and hence locate plots of interest.

13    Trial Monitoring

The site must be regularly monitored by the Trial Service Provider for weeds, pests, diseases or other incidents, such as grazing or storm damage. The site must be inspected by the Trial Service Provider (at a minimum) 4 weeks after sowing, two weeks after herbicide application, at flowering and shortly prior to harvest. A record is to be made of each inspection, including the name of the individual who conducted the inspection.

The cooperating farmer may be prepared to assist in monitoring, by reporting any incidents or problems to the Trial Service Provider. However this does not replace the responsibility of the Trial Service Provider to monitor the site.

Seed quality has caused uneven plant establishment in previous NVT trials. To pre-empt this, fully replicated scores for plant establishment are to be completed for one trial of each crop within 4 weeks of emergence. This is to be entered onto the NVT database as soon as practical to identify potential seed quality issues.

This may be an actual plant count, or a rating, and the data entered into the NVT database. An estimate of plant vigour for canola and pulses may also be required by the NVT Manager, within 8 weeks of emergence, measured according to the ACAS protocols.

Plot observations recorded by the Trial Service Provider are grouped as either variates or covariates. Variates relate to a variety (height, flowering time, etc.) and allow information on the agronomy of a variety to be collected, as well as a validity check that a variety is in the correct location. Covariates are location based, independent of variety, and influence the accuracy in variety performance. Covariates include uneven establishment within a plot, weed infestation, blocked or missing rows, etc. Covariates are very important and, when taken, are required for every plot, not just the first rep.

Yield limiting factors such as frost, disease, weeds, nutrient deficiency/toxicity, and drought are to be recorded and reported. Where required, plot scale observations are to be taken on the trial and entered directly into the NVT database. ACAS protocols for individual agronomic or disease characteristics are to be followed when taking plot observations.

To better discriminate sites that are affected by frosts, Service Providers are required to collect minimum temperature data for each site, not each trial at each site. However, trials at different paddocks within a locality require data collection at each paddock. Data required is minimum temperature, collected every 15 minutes, for a period of 4 months. This time period is to be equally spaced before and after flowering of the trial crop. The minimum temperature data is to be provided to the NVT manager in raw “ttd” (TinyTag Data) form by Jan 31 of the following year.

Over time, days to flowering data will provide a sowing window for varieties within the regions tested. It is realised that not every trial will have flowering data recorded due to logistical reasons and cost. At least one trial in each region for each sowing period (fortnightly) must have days to flowering data collected from every plot in the trial. Other trials may have Zadoks scores or growth scores for each plot in the trial.

Any incident, accident or other factor that could have an effect on the accuracy or reliability of the trial, especially anything that differentially affects breeding lines or standard varieties, must be reported to the NVT Manager immediately.

13.1    Tinytag Temperature Sensing

To better discriminate sites that are affected by frosts, Service Providers are required to collect minimum temperature data for each site (not each trial at each site). However, trials in different paddocks within the same locality require data collection in each paddock.

Tinytag Plus-2 temperature sensors are provided to NVT Service Providers by ACAS for the number of sites that they’re required for. Maintenance and accuracy checks of the Tinytags are the Service Providers’ responsibility. The calibration of each unit is to be checked annually. A suggested method for the calibration check is outlined in the ACAS Tinytag Standard Operating Procedure (Appendix 3). Failing units should be returned to the supplier for recalibration. Batteries should be replaced annually.

Temperature data is to be captured at 15 minute intervals. The Tinytags can be collected and data downloaded at or prior to harvest at a time convenient to the operator.

Tinytag placement is to be within the trial plots at the estimated canopy height at flowering. The actual height is to be recorded. Care must be taken when mounting sensors to minimise shock and damage to the unit. An approved shade cover must be used to protect the unit from direct sunlight. Approved covers include:

  • Cut down plastic chemical containers
  • Stevenson screens
  • Sturdy pot plant bases
  • Ant caps for house stumps
  • Anything light coloured, sturdy, and that can be firmly fixed to the mounting post providing shade for the Tinytag.

Data is to be provided to NVT in “.ttd” format (Tinytag Data File) within two weeks of the trial harvest date. This will allow time for the data to be used in the trial release decision making process and for any required comments to be added to the database.

14    Weed Management

The objective is to have a weed free trial so that weed competition does not compromise the yield of the lines in the trial. Achieving this without excessive herbicide applications requires planning and good site selection. If in-crop herbicides are required, they should be applied as soon as necessary, and/or when optimal conditions prevail in accordance with the label.

Good farming practice must be used in the application of any herbicide, with spray equipment checked for accurate application rates, and the quantity of both active ingredient and water accurately measured. Any herbicide must be applied at the rate recommended by the manufacturer for each trial crop taking into account the soil type and stage of growth. All manufacturers’ requirements must be met.

If an applied herbicide appears to have differentially affected one or more breeding lines or standard varieties, this must be recorded and the NVT Manager advised immediately.

Where all entries in a trial are herbicide tolerant, for example triazine tolerant canola, the entire trial area must have triazine applied at the manufacturers recommended rate, at the manufacturers recommended time/s, and in accordance with all other manufacturers recommendations.

As indicated earlier, if herbicide resistance in weeds occurs on the site, a management plan must be prepared and implemented to minimise competition from the weed/s. The NVT Manager must be advised immediately if implementation of the management plan does not succeed in minimising competition from the herbicide resistant weed/s. The trial site must be managed in consultation with the landholder.

Hand pulling or cutting of weeds may be required if herbicide regimes have failed or are deemed unsuitable.

15    Disease and Pest Management

The NVT Manager must be notified if and when there is a significant outbreak of a pest or disease. The outbreak must be controlled by best farming practice. If fungicides or insecticides are to be used they must be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

An outbreak of a pest or disease may offer an opportunity for assessment of the resistance/tolerance level of the lines in the trial. The Trial Service Provider should notify the NVT Manager of such opportunities so that the NVT Manager can organise for the trials to be inspected by a participating pathologist.

16    Site Inspections

The site must be available for inspection by the NVT Manager, by an Audit Team approved by the NVT Manager, or by any of the breeders whose lines are sown in the trial, at a mutually convenient time.

For canola, the GPS coordinates for each trial are required by May 31st. This will allow breeding company representatives to visit the canola trials at the germination and early establishment growth stage.

It is the responsibility of the Trial Service Provider to provide a mud-map indicating the location of the trial in the paddock and the location of the NVT trial in relation to other trials at the same site (if relevant). The mud-map should include a text box indicating access to the trial site, with relevant landmarks and distances. It should also include the GPS coordinates of the site (in decimal degrees format) and contact numbers for both the Trial Manager and the landowner/co-operator. The mud-maps are to be loaded onto the NVT database by the date stipulated in the service provider contract with GRDC. This is to allow easy access to trial sites by breeders and site auditors.

NVT and GRDC signs are to be placed on a secure, prominent position on the roadside where access to the NVT trial is gained (alternatively, placed at the access gate to the trial). This will help promote the NVT program as well as assist visitors in locating the trials. They should be installed on the day of sowing and remain in place until the trial is harvested. Contact the NVT manager if more signs are required.

It is the responsibility of impending visitors to notify the individual Trial Managers about all site visits. Issues of farmer privacy, access restrictions (if any) and possible biosecurity concerns all need addressing by the Trial Manager before each visit.

17    Field Days

It is highly desirable for a field day to be held on most sites, to promote the NVT system and to enable local growers and advisers to see the advanced breeding lines first hand. Such field days are best held in conjunction with a local farmer group meeting. Field days might also include a presentation by a local public adviser, provided that advisor does not represent them as being connected to a breeding company or program. Field days might also include presentations by a group of private advisers, provided that these advisors do not sponsor a field day or imply that they sponsor a field day. A presentation by a group of private advisors, as opposed to one private advisor, would alleviate any perception of conflict. Any sponsorship MUST be limited to advertising the field day, and to refreshments and other costs of holding the field day. The Trial Service Provider MUST NOT accept sponsorship, or money, or any product from a sponsor.

The Trial Service Provider must take responsibility for organising the viewing of NVT trials at the field day, but can delegate the promotion and detailed organisation of the field day as a whole to a farmer group, public agronomist, or group of private agronomists.

At a field day, one replicate (usually the first range) is to be signposted with the names of local check varieties and the breeder’s code number. If a breeding line has been commercially released prior to the field day, its name is to be signposted. Signage is to be of the same type and size for all genotypes, with all companies equally displayed. The use of larger or more colourful company genotype signage is not condoned.

If one breeding program/company wishes to speak at the field day, the same opportunity must be given to representatives of all breeding programs/companies whose breeding lines are sown at the site.

It is preferable that a representative of the Trial Service Provider be the main speaker and MC at the NVT trial, outline how the trial has been conducted (date sown, fertiliser regime, available nitrogen and water at sowing, in-crop rainfall, weed management etc.) any factors which may have differentially affected yield or other performance, draw attention to the standard varieties and to any lines which appear to have better performance.

18    Harvesting

Trials are to be harvested in one direction, not in a serpentine fashion.

The trial must be harvested at the earliest opportunity after physiological maturity of the plots, to minimise grain losses through wind, insect, rain, or pest damage. Observations of any such damage are to be recorded by the Trial Service Provider and reported to the NVT Manager. Observations at harvest might also include head loss, shattering, weak straw or lodging.

Canola is very susceptible to oilseed loss by wind damage close to maturity and during the harvesting process. There are three methods of minimising these losses – windrowing, desiccation, and careful direct heading. If a canola trial is to be windrowed it must be done at the appropriate growth stage and in such a way that crop material is not carried between plots. If a canola trial is to be desiccated, it is to be done at the appropriate time and in accordance with the chemical manufacturers’ instructions. Where a canola trial is to be direct headed, great care must be taken to prevent excessive and especially differential oilseed loss during harvest.

Desiccation standard varieties will be confirmed at the beginning of each season as part of the NVT variety nomination process. Standard varieties will be selected for both the early season trials and the mid seasons trials and their maturity should be used as a guide to determine when a trial should be desiccated or windrowed.

The decision of what harvest method to use is determined by the Trial Service Provider, but the outcome must be that oilseed loss is minimised, and that there is NO differential loss between breeding lines and released varieties.

The Trial Service Provider must ensure that the harvesting equipment is well maintained and adjusted and staff involved are well trained to minimise grain or oilseed loss and to minimise grain damage such as cracking and splitting. The header must be adequately cleaned between plots to avoid carry-over of grain between plots.

Harvested grain from each plot must be separately and accurately weighed, preferably on site, but if off site then a foolproof system of bagging and labelling must be instituted. Data pertaining to harvesting must be input into the NVT database by the NVT Service Provider immediately following harvest.

Weighing devices used at harvest must be checked at least annually according to an industry accepted protocol, to ensure accuracy and reliability under field conditions. Trial Service Providers must provide details of how their recording devices have been checked, and by whom, to the NVT Manager annually.

If harvested grain is to be retained for sowing or for any other reason, the NVT Manager will inform the Trial Service Provider at least one month prior to harvest. A foolproof bagging and labelling system must be instituted to ensure accurate and reliable seed retention. If breeding programs wish to obtain grain samples from their entries in NVT trials, they will notify the NVT Manager at least 6 weeks prior to harvest and will bear any extra costs to the Trial Service Providers arising from harvest, storage and shipment of grain to breeders.

Any retained grain must be stored in a vermin and insect proof storage area.

Intellectual Property of the breeders in their breeding lines must be protected in accordance with the NVT Service Agreement. Seed must not be used for any purpose other than for carrying out the Services. Third parties must not have an opportunity to remove any seed of breeding lines.

The Trial Service Provider must retain seed samples for the determination of delivery standards (see section 18), and/or for auditing purposes (e.g. confirmation of genetic identify) for two years, or as deemed necessary by the NVT Manager. Seed samples must be kept in a permanently labelled sample bag and stored as mentioned above. The remainder of the harvested grain must be handled in accordance with the NVT Managers instructions, which will include the mixing of grain into a bulk that obscures the genetic identity of a breeder’s line. The Trial Service Provider must keep a record of the method and date of their destruction. Bulked grain must not be replanted or handed to breeding programs or seed suppliers.

Trials which are obviously lost to seasonal or operational issues must not have harvested data entered onto the NVT database without the approval by the NVT Manager although the sites still require cleaning up in the usual manner.

19    Delivery Standard Determination

Trial Service Providers are required to determine some delivery standard parameters:

Delivery standard testing is to be conducted upon a composite sample made from all replicates of each genotype in each trial. All of the test results are to be entered by the Trial Service Provider into the NVT database as soon as practicable after receiving the results.

Laboratories undertaking NVT Delivery Standard Determination must have at least Grain Trade Australia (GTA) standard operating procedures or applicable GTA Code of Practice Technical Guideline document for each test for cereals and incorporate quality assurance measures (that are auditable) to ensure repeatability of results.

The Australian Oilseeds Federation provide Quality Standards, Technical Information and Typical Analysis 2015/2016. However, test methods for NIR oil and protein are not provided.

The laboratory undertaking canola oil and protein testing (whole seed and meal) must have standard operating procedures and incorporate quality assurance measures (that are auditable) to ensure repeatability of results. The NIR equipment must have an annual in-house calibration check or through the supplier of the equipment using a relevant recognised International Standard Reference Method (AOCS, ISO, FOSFA etc.)

As a reference, the Pulse Australia website has the Australian Pulse Standards 2015/2016 which identifies all physical traits of pulse seed that are commercially important. The NVT program require that 100 or 1000 grain weights are provided, depending upon the crop species. Defective traits (usually colour) ARE required for those NVT pulse trials where defected seed occurs.

For pulses, Defective Quality Parameters are defined on page 5, Section 3B. Scores are to be 9-1, with 9 being excellent (free from defect) to 1 being severely affected by the defect.

The GTA test methods and technical guidelines can be found on line at http://www.graintrade.org.au/commodity_standards and http://www.graintrade.org.au/grain-industry-code-practice/gta-technical-guidelines. This site also has links to the Australian Oilseed Federation and Pulse Australia Standards

NOTE:

Glucosinolate testing for canola post the 2015 season is only required from two low rainfall sites per state, one Early and one Mid maturity site. The NVT Manager will notify the relevant NVT Service Providers regarding the sites that will require the glucosinolate testing

20    Site Clean-up

If the site requires clean-up, including removal of fencing, it must be done as soon after harvest as practicable to ensure good relations with the farmer and farming community. Details of any arrangements regarding site clean-up should form part of the Farmer Agreement (Section 4)

21    Quality Assurance

All Trial Service Providers must have appropriate Standard Operating Procedures and/or Quality Assurance procedures, in writing to ensure the outcomes established in this document. All staff must be adequately trained to accurately achieve these outcomes before they are permitted to undertake any activity on NVT trials.

Trial Service Providers must provide their written procedures to the NVT Manager on request for evaluation.

22    Audit

ACAS has developed an audit procedure to audit achievement against required outcomes. Such audits will serve to reinforce stakeholder confidence in the NVT system.

A site audit process has been developed to utilise plant breeders visiting trial sites to ensure all sites are inspected during the growing season.

 

 

Milestone

Description

Recurring

2016, 2017, 2018

1

Trials designed and sites prepared for planting for early sown wheat NVT MTAs executed in accordance with the agreement.

April 7th

2

Trials designed and sites prepared for planting for main season crops (relevant by region). NVT MTAs executed in accordance with the agreement.

April 21st

3

NVT seed allocation received and all seed transfer documentation finalised with copies sent to the NVT manager.

April 30th

4

All trials planted as per district grower practise and within the NVT sowing window for each crop within each region; or as directed by the NVT Manager.

July 31st (specific planting windows provided in the 2016 NVT Protocols)

5

Variations to trial randomisations reported to the NVT Manager and modified in the NVT database ASAP after sowing each year and no later than 31 July each year.

July 31st

6

Site details and soil characterisation completed and information provided to the NVT manager for each trial site by 31 July each annually

July 31st

7

Trial management information provided to the NVT database for each trial site by 31 July each year, in relation to:

·       Paddock history

·       Sowing date

·       Fertiliser usage

·       Chemical applications to date

Confirmation of all grower co-operator acceptance of trials

July 31st

8

Contract representative to attend the national coordination meeting to present previous season results and contribute to annual operational plan

September 1st

9

Provision of opportunistic observations in relation to other agronomic traits i.e. flowering time Provision of fungicide application data

November 30th

10

All trials harvested

December 31st

11

All yield data entered onto the nominated database for each trial

December 31st

12

Weather data downloaded and the raw data files provided to the NVT Manager

December 31st

13

End of season report outlining delivery against the required service levels

February 14th

Appendix 1 Proposed Data Entry and Milestone Dates (Standardised nationally for 2015 project)



Appendix 2 Sowing windows for NVT trials

   

NVT Trial Sowing Windows

1st March, 2016

 

GroupName

NAC Ratified

Preferred, allowable ratified dates

 

GroupName

Not ratified by NAC

 

Acceptable dates (will be modified to “Preferred/Allowable” or deleted, once ratified by NAC groups)

 









 

 

Appendix 3 PreDicta B sampling protocols

NVT trial sites in Southern (including NSW south of Dubbo) & Western Regions

Materials

  • Research kits (to be distributed by SARDI).
  • Soil corer; AccuCore; preferred with 10mmx100mm core (Spurr Soil Probes: 08 8296 4138).
  • Esky, no ice, to store samples out of direct sun.

Protocol

For one PreDicta B sample per site.

  • Collect up to 3 cores from 15 locations following a grid pattern across the site (Figure 1).
  • Collect the cores from along the row of the previous cereal crop, if still visible and do not remove any plant debris.
  • If stubble or grass weed residues present, add 1 piece of stubble from each of the 15 locations to the bag; each piece should be 5cm long, containing the crown, and from base of previous cereal plant of grass weed (Figure 2).
  • Stubble can be more than one year old.

Figure 1 15 locations across trial site

Figure 2 Stubble pieces should be a main stem from base of the plant, may be > 1 year old

Up to 3 cores (see Table 1) at each location on previous crop rows plus 1 piece of stubble

  • Total sample weight should be less than 500g.

 

 

Table 1. If using a corer with a diameter > 10mm you will need to reduce the number of cores per location.

Core length

Core diameter

10mm

12mm

14mm

18mm

100mm southern/western region

3

2

1

1

 

 

Sample Handling

In field, store samples in an esky, <10℃ if moist

If drying moist samples:

  • Air dry thin layer of soil on paper or
  • Use well ventilated soil oven at 4℃
  • Do NOT microwave

If in doubt, seek advice from SARDI to confirm the best sampling strategy for research purposes.

Send samples to:

SARDI, Plant Research Centre,

Gate 2A Hartley Grove,

Urrbrea, South Australia 5064

 

Further information:

Shawn Rowe

[email protected]

0477 744 305

 

 

 

NVT trial sites in Northern Region (including NSW north of Dubbo)

Materials

  • Research kits (to be distributed by SARDI).
  • Soil corer; AccuCore; preferred with 10mmx100mm core (Spurr Soil Probes: 08 8296 4138).
  • Esky, no ice, to store samples out of direct sun.

Protocol

  • For one PreDicta B sample per site.
    • Collect up to 2 cores from 15 locations following a grid pattern across the site (Figure 1).
    • Collect the cores from along the row of the previous cereal crop, if still visible and do not remove any plant debris.
    • If stubble or grass weed residues present, add 2 piecea of stubble from each of the 15 locations to the bag; each piece should be 5cm long, containing the crown, and from base of previous cereal plant of grass weed (Figure 2).
    • Stubble can be more than one year old.

Figure 3: 15 locations across trial site

Figure 4: Stubble pieces should be a main stem from base of the plant, may be > 1 year old

Up to 2 cores (see Table 1) at each location on previous crop rows plus 2 pieces of stubble.

  • Total sample weight should be less than 500g.

 

 

 

Table 1. If using a corer with a diameter > 10mm you will need to reduce the number of cores per location.

Core length

Core diameter

10mm

12mm

14mm

18mm

150mm Northern region

2

1

1

1

*If sample collected >500g mix in bucket and bag only half

 

 

 

 

Sample Handling

In field, store samples in an esky, <10℃ if moist

If drying moist samples:

  • Air dry thin layer of soil on paper or
  • Use well ventilated soil oven at 4℃
  • Do NOT microwave

If in doubt, seek advice from SARDI to confirm the best sampling strategy for research purposes.

Send samples to:

SARDI, Plant Research Centre,

Gate 2A Hartley Grove,

Urrbrea, South Australia 5064

 

Further information:

Shawn Rowe

[email protected]

0477 744 305

 

Appendix 4: Tiny Tag Temperature Sensing Data Loggers

Aim: To obtain maximum, and more importantly minimum, temperature data at NVT trial sites to assist in depicting the possibility and severity of frost damage to crops during flowering. And, to assist in depicting flowering shut-down and restricted plant growth at higher temperatures, above 30℃ in temperate crops.

Unit: Tiny Tag Data Logger, Model # TGP-4017

Calibration / Testing: The Tiny Tag temperature data loggers supplied do not require re-calibration; however, a simple accuracy check must be carried out using the following guidelines before the tiny tags can be used in the field.

Step 1:   Connect the Tiny Tag to a computer and using the Tiny Tag Explorer software, set Tiny Tags to record for a period of 3 hours taking measurements at 10 minute intervals and set to “stop when full”.

Step 2:   Create an ice slurry by crushing ice cubes into a pulp inside a plastic bag.

Step 3:   Fill a water-proof container (preferably insulated) with the ice slurry. The ice should be almost solid with just enough melt to fill the gaps between the ice. No additional water should be added.

Step 4:   Place the data logger inside a watertight zip-lock plastic bag or other waterproof container and completely submerge in the ice slurry. Ensure that sensors are not touching the sides or bottom of the container.

Step 5:   Take an already calibrated thermometer with temperature range of at least -5 to +40℃ and place in the ice slurry making sure that the temperature gauge can easily be seen.

Step 6: Place the container with the data logger, thermometer and ice crush into a refrigerator or ‘esky’ to help provide a slower rate of ice melt. The ice should melt slowly and loggers should record a temperature from ambient temperature to 0℃.

Step 7:   Check the thermometer reading at 10 minute intervals corresponding to when the Tiny Tags will take a reading, and record the measurement. Do this for the 3 hour period until the Tiny Tags have stopped taking measurements.

Step 8:   Remove the Tiny Tags from ice slurry and connect to a computer to download the results and graph. The graph should look like Figure 1.

Figure 1: 0 Tiny Tag Temperature Check

Step 9:   Compare the results taken by the tiny tag with results taking from the thermometer reading to ensure that they correspond with each other. There may be slight differences due to the time taken for each device to reach equilibrium, but the minimum temperature reached should be the same at 0℃.

Step 10: Set aside any tiny tag devices for repair/return that do not comply with expected results.

Field Settings for Data Loggers: Tags should be set to take a temperature reading at 15 minute intervals when in the field. Temperature data must be captured from at least August 1 until October 30. There is the future option to have temperatures recorded from sowing date to harvest date. Data should be retrieved, saved, and then cleared off the Tiny Tags every season. Batteries need replacing every season as well. All Tiny Tags need to be clearly labelled with the site name before being placed in the field.

Mounting / Field Placement:

Tiny Tags are to be mounted within a trial at a standard height of 1.0 meter to give conformity over all NVT sites. A sun shading device or “hat” is required to protect tiny tags from direct sunlight and from “bird damage”. These preferably need to be light coloured to reflect sun and mounted so they don’t gather water when it rains. An upside down ice-cream container with 2 of the 4 sides cut out, mounted to the top of a stake, slightly above where the tiny tag hangs, is recommended for this.

Figure 2 – Mounting Direction of Tiny Tag and cover. The ice-cream container has had 2 sides cut out to allow air flow around the Tiny Tag. The tag is hanging from a nail placed on a corner of the stake to allow it to hang freely without touching the ice-cream container.       For photographic purposes this tag has been held towards the sun for better lighting. In the field, Tiny Tags will be mounted with the cut-out sides of the container facing south.

Figure 3: Flat headed nails are used to join the ice cream container to the stake to prevent the container blowing off. The sheltered sides of the container are to face north to block the tiny tag from direct sunlight whilst the cut out side face south to allow air flow.

 

 

 

Figure 5: If ample ice-cream containers cannot be found, light coloured flower-pot drip trays can be used, if light coloured ones can’t be found then they must be spayed/painted white. These should be mounted off-centre as shown to block more of the sun from the north. The Tiny Tag can again hang from a nail undercover.


Mounting / Field Placement:

There are two options that can be used when hanging tiny tags. These are demonstrated below.

Option 1: Tiny Tag positioning in field

The first option uses a steel post for the mount and must have a heavy gauge wire outrigger to keep the tiny tag hanging freely in the air away from the post. Steel posts will heat up when exposed to direct sunlight and result in inaccurate air temperature readings. The sun shade is to be mounted slightly above where the tiny tag hangs on this outrigger to shade the tiny tag from direct sunlight as shown above. Tiny Tags must be hanging freely in the air at the height of the crop at flowering. In this option the wire outrigger can be adjusted to change the height.

Option 2: Tiny Tag Position in Field

Option 2 must use a wooden stake which is more resistant to heat than steel, and hammered firmly into the soil. The Tiny Tag is hung from a nail at the height of the crop at flowering. Multiple nails can be put in the stake at varying heights allow for variations in crop height, or the stake depth can be varied. The sunshade can then be nailed into the top of the stake to protect the tag from direct sunlight as shown above.

Both options need to be constructed as solidly as possible the avoid wind causing damage to tiny tags and mounts.